Quick Facts About Pneumonia
- Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under five after the neonatal period.
- Each year, pneumonia kills more children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. More than 2 million children die from pneumonia annually, accounting for almost a fifth of deaths among children under five across the world.
- Pneumonia is a preventable and treatable disease that affects children and families everywhere, but is highly prevalent in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
- Most healthy children are able to fight the disease, but for those with fragile immune systems – due to malnutrition, undernourishment or other diseases – it can be deadly.
- Pneumonia is a severe form of acute respiratory infection, mainly caused by a bacterial pathogen. With early diagnosis and care, the infection can be easily treated with antibiotics.
Quick Facts About Tuberculosis (TB)
- According to the World Health Organization, one third of the world’s population is infected with TB.
- In 2015, more than 10 million people fell ill due to TB, and 1.8 million people died from the disease, including 0.4 million among people with HIV. In that same year, national notification systems missed about 4 million people who developed TB.
- Today, TB remains the leading cause of death (35%) for people living with HIV.
Our TB and pneumonia programs focus on behavior change communication to encourage care-seeking behavior, strengthen capacity of public and private providers to diagnose either disease and support high-quality, affordable treatment products or services in line with national health system priorities.
We have distributed over 3 million pre-packaged treatments for pneumonia, preventing more than 230,000 DALYs. In 2013, our TB programs prevented 153,500 DALYs in 13 countries.
We focus on integrated case management, improved care-seeking behavior (i.e., exclusive breastfeeding) and pre-packaged treatment, to ensure access to appropriate and affordable pneumonia diagnosis and treatment.
- Integrated case management: Our integrated case management programs reduce death and severe disease through prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment where and when people need it.
- Exclusive breastfeeding: We provide mothers with messages about the importance of early initiation of breastfeeding, followed by exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and appropriate and timely complementary breastfeeding for children after six months.
- Pre-packaged treatment: We educate caregivers on the importance of prompt care seeking behavior and where to go when a child presents with cough and rapid breathing, and we distribute pre-packaged therapy for pneumonia.
We leverage our expertise in private-sector engagement, service integration and behavior change communication to increase access to quality TB care for poor and vulnerable populations.
- Social Marketing Evidence Base: Tuberculosis
The Social Marketing Evidence Base was compiled from a systematic review of published literature evaluating social marketing interventions in global health. This document provides an overview of the results from the studies on tuberculosis.
- Infographic: The Social Marketing Evidence Base
In response to questions about the effectiveness of social marketing in global health, we systematically reviewed all literature published over two decades on social marketing for several health areas; reproductive health, malaria, child survival, and tuberculosis in developing countries. The methods and findings are summarized here in the form of an infographic.
- Non-Communicable Disease Life Course Pocket Cards
At the 61st session of the UN"s Commission on the Status of Women, PSI and its partners on the Women and NCDs Task Force promoted a set of pocket cards illustrating a woman's risk for non-communicable diseases over the course of her lifetime.
- The Effectiveness of Social Marketing in Global Health: a Systematic Review
Social marketing is a commonly used strategy in global health. Social marketing programmes may sell subsidized products through commercial sector outlets, distribute appropriately priced products, deliver health services through social franchises and promote behaviours not dependent upon a product or service. The document aims to review evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in low- and middle-income countries, focusing on major areas of investment in global health: HIV, reproductive health, child survival, malaria and tuberculosis.
- Barriers to Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC) Among TB Patients in Myanmar
In Myanmar, we introduced provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) to increase the detection of HIV among TB patients. As part of this work, we conducted research to identify barriers to PITC-uptake among TB patients
- Comparison of Different Models for Active TB Case Finding in Zimbabwe
We recently evaluated our efforts to increase TB case detection among people living with HIV in Zimbabwe using routine data collected during service delivery. The evaluation found that offering TB screening and diagnosis services as part of the delivery of HTC services was more effective than broader community outreach efforts
- TB Case Detection via Private Pharmacies in Lao PDR
In Laos, we use a tailored incentive scheme to increase case detection among pharmacists in the private sector.
- Engagement of Non-Allopathic/AYUSH Health Care Providers in TB Care and Control: Results of Two Years of Implementation
In India, many people seek care from practitioners of alternative medicine. We sensitize these providers about TB, training them to detect the symptoms of TB and to link clients to laboratory diagnostics available free of charge in the public sector. This ensures that patients with TB are diagnosed as quickly as possible and linked to quality TB treatment. As many as 29 percent of all patients referred by these providers tested positive for TB.
- Private Sector Healthcare Myanmar: Evidence from the ‘Sun’ Social Franchise
As an evidence-based model, social franchising puts high quality healthcare within the reach of people in need around the world. This report showcases results from four studies led by researchers from PSI, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and Johns Hopkins University, which demonstrate how social franchising networks, like PSI/Myanmar's Sun Quality Network, improve the quality of health service delivery and health outcomes at-scale, cost effectively and equitably.
- Follow the Need: Recipe for Scaling Up Access to Quality Pneumonia, Diarrhea and Malaria Case Management in South Sudan
Looking at certain 'ingredients,' this case study outlines how PSI and partners are working to scale up access to, quality of, and demand for improved health services and products in South Sudan using integrated community case management (iCCM). It also delineates keys to success and lessons learned from the study.