Background: To identify predictors of HIV testing and condom use in Mozambique.
Methods: Nationally representative survey data collected in Mozambique in 2009 was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used for two outcomes: HIV testing and condom use.
Results: Women at a higher risk of HIV were less likely to be tested for HIV than women at a lower risk: testing was lower among never married women and women with four or more lifetime partners. Large wealth differentials were observed in HIV testing rates. Perceived quality of health services was an important predictor of HIV testing: HIV testing was higher among women who rated health services as being of very good quality. Type of sexual partner was the strongest predictor of condom use, but being tested for HIV during the last two years was the only programmatic variable that predicted condom use. Frequent mass media exposure was neither associated with HIV testing nor with condom use.
Conclusions: The focus of HIV testing should shift from married women (routinely tested during antenatal care visits) to unmarried women and women with multiple sexual partners. Financial barriers to HIV testing appear to be substantial and may be reduced by developing mechanisms to cover the cost of transportation to health facilities. Men should be encouraged to test for HIV periodically.