Background: Key strategies have been implemented in Kenya to ensure access to confirmatory testing and appropriate treatment for malaria cases. These include a private sector copayment mechanism (CPM), first implemented as the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) pilot from 2010-2011 and subsequently the Global Fund’s CPM.
Methods: Nationally-representative malaria outlet surveys were conducted in 2010, 2011 and 2014. A census of public and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted among a representative sample of administrative units. All public sector outlets, referred to as ‘public total,’ is inclusive of community health workers (CHWs) and private not-for-profit health facilities. An audit was completed for all antimalarials, malaria rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy.
Results: By the end of the AMFm pilot period in 2011, quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy (QA ACT) was available in more than half of all antimalarial-stocking private sector outlets (60%) and 97% of public sector outlets. Availability increased in 2014 to 71% of private sector outlets, but decreased in the public sector to 87%. In 2014, QA ACT availability was greater than 80% in private facilities (84%), pharmacies (91%) and unregistered pharmacies (84%), but was much lower among general retailers (26%).