Gender-based violence (GBV) is violence that is directed at an individual based on his or her biological sex, gender identity. People can also experience GBV based on socially defined norms of masculinity and femininity.
Examples of GBV include, but are not limited to: sexual abuse of children, rape, intimate partner violence, sexual assault and harassment, trafficking of women and girls, and harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation. These acts can occur in public or private spaces and are usually committed by someone the survivor knows – in most cases, an intimate partner.
Globally, one in three women will be beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in her lifetime, with rates of abuse as high as 70% in some countries. Men and boys also experience GBV, and marginalized populations such as men who have sex with men, are at especially high risk. Transgender women experience some of the highest rates of GBV.
GBV has serious health consequences that go beyond, the immediate damage inflicted during incidents of violence. Women who experience abuse as children are more likely to suffer from depression and stress-related illnesses as adults, and are more likely to have an intimate partner who is abusive. Men who experienced or witnessed violence in the home as boys are more likely to be violent as adults. Violence and the threat of violence limit women’s autonomy to make decisions about their health, in particular their sexual health. This leaves them at higher risk of unplanned pregnancies, unsafe abortions, teen pregnancy. Women who experience GBV are also at risk of delivering a low birth-weight baby if abused during pregnancy. Men who are violent also tend to engage in higher risk sexual behaviors, which means they are more likely to become infected with HIV and other STIs. This puts their sexual partners at greater risk of contracting those diseases.
PSI leverages our broad network of providers to respond to the urgent needs of GBV survivors as well as break the cycle of violence that permeates communities worldwide.
Our social marketing strategies contribute to creating an environment where GBV is not tolerated. We build relationships with partners, stakeholders and health providers to help GBV survivors access the services they need to overcome the violence they have or are currently experiencing.
In Zimbabwe, PSI’s New Start social franchise network provides an array of integrated services that include forensic exams for rape survivors in case they decide to take their case to court. Working in partnership with Family Support Trust and the Adult Rape Clinic in Zimbabwe, they have seen about 1,500 gender based violence survivors for these services to date.
The services have been accompanied by a mass media campaign with three main objectives:
- Getting rape survivors to access services within 72 hours of a rape and informing them where to go.
- Ensuring that survivors realize that they are not to blame for the sexual violence that has been perpetrated against them.
- Challenging negative gender norms that drive sexual violence and leave many survivors without the social support they need to recover.
PSI’s gender-based violence (GBV) work is focused on the following areas:
● Ensuring all survivors of GBV receive a compassionate and appropriate response from PSI’s providers – all the way from community mobilizers to staff in our clinics.
● Increasing access to high-quality post-GBV care through our network of clinics and community healthcare workers.
● Supporting local anti-GBV organizations with capacity-building and tools to stay better-connected across communities and regions.
- “Stigma And Discrimination-Free Zones”: An Innovative Approach to Engaging the Private and Public Sectors in Creating More Inclusive Environments for Key Populations in Central America (TUPED509)
Central America's HIV epidemic is concentrated in key populations (KPs). Despite existing HIV laws and policies that respond to KP's specific needs, there is evidence of widespread discriminatory attitudes and practices towards these populations, and stigma and discrimination continue to be important barriers to accessing HIV services and care. In 2016, under the USAID Combination Prevention Program for HIV in Central America, PASMO designed an intervention entitled “stigma and discrimination-free zones” as part of a broader initiative known as Generation Zero, contributing to the goal of “getting to zero discrimination.”
- An Integrated Approach of Addressing GBV and HIV for AGYWs. The Case of DREAMS Project in Malawi (WEPED564)
Half of the 100,000 new HIV infections in Malawi occur among young people (15-24 years). Through the DREAMS initiative, PSI Malawi offer integrated health services including GBV to Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) in Machinga district. Health services on offer to AGYW's through mobile outreach clinics are STI screening, HIV testing and first-line support to survivors of GBV. Program data was used to understand the effectiveness of integrating GBV and HIV service for AGYW.
- Crisis in the Triangle: Addressing Adolescent Reproductive Health & Violence Prevention in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras
With the largest youth population in history, it is critical to bring together and evaluate the most promising practices from health, violence prevention, protection and education, to develop – in partnership with young people–programs, evidence based research and opportunities that will transform the Northern Triangle countries into safe and healthy places for young people to thrive.
- Gender-Based Violence: A Review of the Evidence
The review describes the prevalence and health effects of gender-based violence (GBV) and synthesizes the evidence on the most effective ways of preventing it.
- Trusted yet Troubled: The Role of the Health Provider in Responding to Gender-Based Violence in Myanmar
GBV has significant reproductive health outcomes. After decades of isolation, Myanmar is opening up and rapidly changing. Recent research with survivors in two cities demonstrated that GBV is pervasive and patterned. This study asks how the knowledge, experiences, and perceptions of GBV among Sun Quality Health providers and clients can inform the design of an effective health sector response to GBV in Myanmar.
- Gender Based Violence Prevention in Trinidad and Tobago
Globally, PSI has been engaging philanthropic individuals to pilot innovative health projects for girls and women to grow the evidence base and take programs to scale. One such partnership is with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Initial pilot projects are being implemented in India, Uganda and Trinidad and Tobago. In Trinidad and Tobago the pilot project is a gender based violence prevention (GBV) program that was initiated in early 2014.
- Prevalence and Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence among Female Sex Workers in Tanzania
Data on sexual and physical violence among female sex workers (FSWs) are limited in Tanzania. PSI analyzed the first national HIV Bio-behavioral Survey data to examine prevalence and correlates of physical and sexual violence in this population. Quantifying the problem and understanding its effects on HIV infection and risk are important for policies and programming. Presented at 2014 International AIDS Conference.
- Use of a Unique Identifier Code System to Track Key Populations Reached Under a Combination Prevention Program in Six Countries of Central America
In 2010, the Pan American Social Marketing Organization (PASMO) began implementing a USAID-funded Central American Combination Prevention Program for HIV, targeting key populations at higher risk that are often hidden, marginalized, and mobile. This presentation discusses that program
- Can a Combination Prevention Strategy Reduce HIV Risks for MSM in Central America?
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most affected key populations in Central America, with HIV prevalence ranging from 7.5 to 11.1 percent. This presentation discusses an evaluation which aimed to assess population-level coverage of specific and combined intervention components among MSM and to determine whether program exposure to any or a combination of components was associated with HIV risk reduction behaviors in this populations.
- Social Vulnerability and HIV Risk Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Central America
This presentation looks at how in Central America's concentrated epidemic, the highest prevalence is found in specific groups, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Sexual behaviors combined with social vulnerability, increase MSM and TGW's risk of HIV. Social vulnerability (including homophobia, isolation, and stigma) is negatively associated with access to condoms, lubricant and HIV testing.