In the past, information useful for identifying and measuring relevant determinants had mostly been gathered from in-country programmers and researchers. This was problematic as scales developed without input from the target audience are less likely to be reliable and valid, limiting data analyses and interpretation and decreasing effectiveness of interventions programs. In addition, the practice contradicts a major principal of social marketing which is to develop customer focused programming.
FoQus on Scales was designed to improve the process for multi-item scale development and adaptation within the PSI Behavior Change Framework. It uses qualitative data collection methods including focus groups, individual one-on-one interviews, and written narratives as well as targeted activities such as free-listing, rankings, pile-sorts, and cognitive interviews to pre-test scales.