Madagascar is a beautiful island nation with a wealth of biodiversity. Up to 5% of the world’s plant and animal species are found on the island, over 80% of which are found nowhere else in the world. Madagascar is also a poor country of just over 19.4 million people, with 85% of the population living on less than two dollars per day and average life expectancy at 55.5 years. The country’s leading causes of death and disability include malaria, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), diarrheal diseases, and adverse conditions arising from pregnancy and birth. Despite these challenges, Madagascar has demonstrated tremendous success in reducing both under-five and infant mortality. In this brief you will find a description of child survival challenges and successes in Madagascar.