The Effectiveness of the USAID Combination Prevention Program for Preventing the Spread of HIV Among Key Populations in Central America


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PSI/PASMO recently published four peer-reviewed articles  on the effectiveness of the USAID Combination Prevention Program for HIV in Central America. The Program is a five-year cooperative agreement funded by USAID and implemented by PASMO and its partners International Planned Parenthood Federation, Cicatelli Associates Inc., and Milk N Cookies to reduce the spread of HIV among key populations at greater risk for HIV and people living with HIV in Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

Two of the four articles (Firestone et al. 2014, Vu et al. 2014) evaluate the effectiveness of the USAID Combination Prevention Program for reducing risk behavior and improving service-seeking among MSM and PLHIV.

Rivas et al. (2014) examine the effectiveness of the Program’s reach to hidden MSM using an innovative cyber-educators approach.

Wheeler et al. (2014) explore rates of experienced violence among MSM and transgender women and the association of violence with increased risk behavior.

Visit to view an interactive feature on findings from the Program.

Citation information:

  1. Firestone, R., J. Rivas, S. Lungo, et al. (2014) Effectiveness of a combination prevention strategy for HIV risk reduction with men who have sex with men in Central America: a mid-term evaluation. BMC Public Health 14:1244.
  2. Rivas, J., J. Wheeler, M. Rodas, et al. (2014) “Hidden on the social media”: HIV Education on MSM through Cybereducators in Central America. Digital Culture and Education 6.3: 197-208.
  3. Vu, L., B. Nieto-Andrade, A. DiVincenzo, et al. (2014) Effectiveness of Behavior Change Communications for Reducing Transmission Risks Among People Living with HIV in 6 Countries in Central America. AIDS and Behavior.
  4. Wheeler, J., K. Anfinson, D. Valvert, and S. Lungo (2014) Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America. Global Health Action 7:24814.